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Types of Geogrids and Their Applications
A geogrid is a geosynthetic made from a polymeric material. Geogrids are formed by weaving or knitting intersecting ribs with appropriate apertures (open spaces for the ribs to fit into). Primarily, a geogrid is used for reinforcement applications in various types of construction projects but can be used for separation applications as well. They are open grids that allow the soil to strike through the apertures and the two materials interlock together to give composite behavior. There is a high demand for geogrids in construction because they are good in tension and have an increased ability to distribute loads across a large area. There are several benefits to using geogrids in all types of construction applications. They can reduce the total cost of a project since apertures work with a wide variety of fill which allows contractors to use less expensive soils. Geogrids can increase the speed of construction which can lead to a reduction in overall cost as well. They reduce the depth of excavation required on unsuitable subgrades. Geogrids also provide enhanced safety and greater seismic durability by stabilizing slopes and increasing soil strength. By reducing the differential settlement of roadways, geogrids reduce the need for maintenance and extend the life of paved roads. Geogrids are highly resistant to soil microorganisms, chemicals, UV radiation, and mechanical damage. Depending upon manufacturing techniques and materials, geogrids can even be designed to resist creep when subjected to high loads for long periods of time or resist high, short-term dynamic loads. Most importantly, the use of geogrids is environmentally friendly.
UNIAXIAL GEOGRID: Uniaxial geogrids are designed with the specific purpose of enduring stress in one single direction. They are formed by stretching the ribs in a longitude direction and their tensile strength is stretched in the machine direction. This means they are perfect for both wall and slope applications such as retaining walls, landfill liner systems, embankments over soft soils, and extra steep earthwork slopes.
BIAXIAL GEOGRID: Biaxial geogrids are designed to have an equal balance of tensile strength in both machine and cross directions. This gives the geogrid the ability to distribute loads over a wider area than usual which increases its capacity in base stabilization applications. Biaxial geogrids are commonly used in applications such as foundations for roadbeds, railroad truck beds, permanent unpaved roads, airport runways, construction haul roads, working platforms on weak subgrades, and parking lots.
TRIAXIAL (TRIAX?) GEOGRIDS: To provide an enhanced level of in-plane stiffness, Triax? geogrids are made from a punched polypropylene sheet oriented in multiple, equilateral directions to form triangular apertures. This creates a more efficient product that delivers optimal in-service stress transfer from the aggregate to the geogrid.
What is geomembrane？
Geosynthetic products have become an integral part of the construction process for several key industries. Its price and physical properties are major advantages compared to traditional alternatives. Geosynthetics are manufactured from various man made polymers and are used in conjunction with soil or rock to enhance the stability of terrains. These products are used in civil, mining and transport infrastructure projects because of its ability to solve a range of engineering problems related to soil reinforcement, erosion control and containment. Geosynthetic products are classified into four types. Geomembranes, geotextiles, geocells and geocomposites. The most popular of these types is geomembrane. Geomembranes are made from impermeable geosynthetic material consisting of thin continuous sheets of polymers. Geomembranes create an impermeable barrier that prevents the leakage of harmful contaminants or dangerous chemicals to surrounding environments. It is also regularly used as containment barriers for potable water and irrigation storage requirements to prevent leakage. Geomembranes are used in conjunction with other geosynthetic products to control fluid movement and provide containment in projects related to mining, sewage treatment and canal construction. The growing application of geomembranes is noticeable in different industries due to the versatility of the product. Geomembranes have a wide range of applications in industries such as mining, marine, civil, water treatment and transportation. Some of the applications are detailed below. Of all the geomembrane types, HDPE is the most recommended because of its operational advantages. It complies with the environmental sustainability requirements, is cheaper than other geomembrane types and has a variety of applications. With its excellent mechanical qualities and long durability, HDPE geomembrane is a cost-effective solution for seepage control and leakage prevention in reservoirs and dams.
The fuctions of Geotextile
Geotextiles are the porous fabric, which utilizes in alliance with the soil, which has the potential to filter, separate, protect. It is a strong fabric that employes in engineering projects. The stabilize loose soil particles and prevents erosion but they are mainly made up of polyester. Its sandbag can be 20m long. It’s amalgamation is been introduced by this material which is referred to as geogrids.
Earlier in ancient times, the textiles were used to support the foundations of the great pyramids. But they use it on the roadways to support and separate the different soil layers from one another. So, geotextile currently supports many of the civil engineering applications which include the roads, dams, railroads, canals, construction sites, etc. The various properties are namely mechanical, hydraulic and chemical. The fabrics come in three basic forms: woven, non-woven, and knitted.
Filtration ：The balance geotextile to the soil system which allows the adequate liquid flow with the little soil loss across the plane of it over the lifespan.
Drainage ：The capacity to wide nonwoven which is a structure that provides the direction for the flow of the water directs the plane.
Separation ：It will isolate the different materials, the function of separation plays an important role.
Reinforcement ：In reinforcement of geotextile, it is similar to the purpose of rebar in concrete. It uses causeway and roads are built over very badly categorized soils.
Sealing ：The fabric can be infused with the asphalt or the other mixes to make it waterproof and is capable of limiting the flow of liquids in both directions. Afterward, the impermeable use to prevent the contamination of the soil or groundwater because of the pollutants which prevent the loss of potable water due to evaporation.
The Benefits of Geocells
A geocell is a three-dimensional cellular structure that can be filled with soil, gravel, or other materials to stabilize steep slopes and prevent erosion. They are made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and have an open cellular structure that allows them to conform to the terrain. Geocells are a revolutionary way of walling off and confining soil, aggregate, or other infill materials. These three-dimensional cellular structures can be expanded during installation so that they form flexible walls with interconnected strips reinforcing tensile strength while also preventing movement by holding everything in place through compression increases due to environmental factors like weathering. When pressure is applied to the soil enclosed inside a geocell, as in a load support application, lateral strains are created on the perimeter cell walls. The 3D zone of confinement reduces soil particle lateral mobility, but vertical loading on the confined infill results in considerable lateral stress and resistance at the cell-soil interface. Infrastructure development includes the design and construction of structures while ensuring that they do not have a detrimental influence on natural resources. Soil stabilization and reinforcement are a major source of worry and a possible threat to the long-term stability of roads, bridges, and pathways. Engineers profit from cellular confinement systems in a variety of ways, including lower cost, enhanced weight-bearing capacity, and improved stability. Additional benefits of using geocells include:
Geocells are used in construction to reduce erosion, stabilize soil, protect channels, and provide structural reinforcement for load support and earth retention.
Protection and stabilization of steep slope surfaces
Protective linings of channels and hydraulic structures
Static and dynamic load support on weak subgrade soils
Multi-layered earth-retaining and water-retaining gravity structures
What are the advantages of a smart grid？
Smart grids contain sensors that measure and transmit data to automatically adjust electricity flows according to supply and demand. Energy managers can use this information to adjust the grid and respond to problems in real time, making managing the grid far more efficient and improving fault detection without the need for technicians. The grid also enters people’s homes by communicating with smart power meters, which can turn on appliances during periods of surplus, when electricity is cheaper. This means smart grids can:
Reduce fuel costs
Integrate different sources of renewable energy into a single grid
Provide instant feedback on energy production and consumption
Make diagnosing faults seamless
Provide energy according to demand, making it more efficient
A smart grid integrates various different technologies, including communications systems, smart meters, sensors and measurement devices, smart power generation devices, phasor measurement units and power system automation technologies, including AI.